From birth onwards, everybody in this world is faced with some problem or the other. There are needs and motives that are to be satisfied. For this purpose definite goal or aims are set. In an attempt for their realization one experiences obstacles and interferences. It creates problem for him and needs a serious attention and deliberates efforts on his part so that the obstacle or interference in the attainment of the objectives may be overcome. For this purpose one has to set one to think and reason and proceed systematically by following the scientific steps.
The above discussed productive works as a whole is named as problem-solving. It has been found very helpful in the progress of an individual as well of the society. The meanings and nature of this term can makeclearer through the following definitions: –
1.Early Childhood Care and Education: “Problem-solving behaviour occurs in novel or difficult situations in which a solution is not obtainable by the habitual methods of applying concepts and principles derived from past experience I very similar situation.’
- Skinner “Problem solving is a process of overcoming difficulties that appear to interfere with the attainment of goal. It is a procedure of making adjustments in spite of interferences.’
In this way problem solving can be understood as a deliberated ad on the part of an individual to overcome the interference or obstacle in the path of the attainment of his goal or objectives which ultimately results in the satisfaction of his needs or motives.
SCIENTIFICE METHOD OF PROBLEM SOLVING
There are various methods of solving problems, which are adopted by an individual depending upon the level of the difficulty of his problem as well as his own ability and experience to deal with it. Usually simple problems are salved through the fixed pattern of our behaviour that may be instinctive or habitual. For the difficult problems trial and error or insightfully approach is adopted. According to Montessori Training there is one more method which is exclusively employed by the human beings in solving their problems. It is known as scientific method of problem solving. It follows the following important steps:-
- Awareness of the problem or realization of the felt difficulty: It is the realization of his difficulty that makes the child conscious of a problem. Therefore should get specific training for problem consciousness.
- Understanding the problem: For thorough understanding, the problem should be carefully analysed, stated and defined in clear words. What it means and what it requires for its solution should be known dearly.
- Collecting relevant information / data: Now the information related to the problem is collected through all possible sources and the individual concerned is required to widen the span of his knowledge relevant to the problem.
- 4. Formulation of hypotheses or possible solutions: One tries to think of the various possibilities for the solution of one’s problem in the light of the collected information and own experiences. The intelligence and his other cognitive abilities also help in the formulation of appropriate hypotheses.