Collaboration is essentially a process whereby participating teachers develop shared meanings and a shared agenda. Then in a co-operative way set out to implement that agenda. R is possible only through positive interpersonal relations, positive interactions, consultations & communication.
There are 2 types of collaboration — 1) Direct 2) Indirect
- i) Direct collaboration:- According to Early Childhood Care Education, in this teachers come together & plan the content according to their abilities & students need & make the teaching-learning process interesting for the student co-operative teaching or team-teaching are example of direct collaboration.
- ii) Indirect collaboration:- According to Montessori Course, it refers to working with the teacher outside of the classroom to plan for students needs. Collaborative consultation, peer collaboration & teacher assistance team are forms of indirect collaboration.
- Collaborative consultation: – Here general education teacher requests the services of the special education teacher to help generalize ideas for addressing an on-going.
- Peer collaboration:- Here the regular teachers work together to identify effective solutions to classroom situations.
- Teacher-Assistance team: – A team of teachers provide support to general education. Teachers by analysing the problem & developing potential solution.
- Co-operative Teaching: – Here general & special education teachers work together in providing direct service to students.
4) Team teaching: – It refers to an instructional situation in which two or more teachers join together, plan together, teach together & evaluate together. It has been defined by S.G. Callahan as that teaching learning process where two or more teachers co-operatively formulate a plan, carry it out, and evaluate its effectiveness as it relates to a specific group student. For the purpose of inclusive education it can be done in a variety of ways, but involved both general & special education. Teachers working together in the classroom &instructing the entire class under inclusive education children with disabilities are educated with regular students & the regular teachers fail to teach them, (teacher) lack Confidence & because of this reason regular education teachers are hesitant to include special needs children in their classrooms. Team teaching thus is a positive step towards helping teachers faces this challenge.
5) Curriculum Adaptation: – Curriculum is the core of the Teaching & Learning that occurs in inclusive schools. It refers to the totality of learning experience in & outside the classrooms. The instructional objectives may be same for all students but the learning experience may be different for different children when needed. The changes that can be brought about in the curriculum are as follows: –
1) Adapting, the materials of contents: – The content to be taught for a particular standard need to be modified keeping in mind the abilities of disabled children, thereby by little changes the aim of inclusive education can be achieved easily.
2) Adapting teaching strategies: – New & innovative teaching methodology should be adopted to enable the disabled students understand the concepts & grasp as well as retain it for a longer time.
3) Adapting the level of support: – The support extended to the students needs to be increased by means of counselling, guidance & motivation & special Concern for the parents of the child.