Pre Primary Teacher Training has given below the four factors of memory and they are:
- Recall and
If all these factors word factors properly, the memory will be quite up to the mark but even if one of the factors fails in. its function, memory is defective. All the four factors must be quite effective and must work properly for good memory. Good memory has the following characteristics:
- Rapidity in learning: As learning is to be the base of memory, this factor must be functioning satisfactorily in the case of good memory. The person must be able to learn the material quite easily and promptly. In the case of slow learning, more time and energy are wasted.
- Durability of retention: The second factor of memory is retention. The memory is as good as is the durability of retention. Some persons can learn things quickly but they forget them quickly. Therefore, their memory is not worthwhile. A man who learns slowly but at the same time forgets slowly is much superior to the former one as regards memory.
- Promptness in recall: An individual with good memory can recall relevant facts promptly. He does not waste time in hunting for clues.
- Accuracy in recall: A person with good memory recalls the ideas promptly and is also quite sure of the accuracy of the same. The mental picture before his eyes is so clear and so vivid before him that he has not to waste time in recognizing the required ideas. He has no confusion and no doubts in his mind.
Describe the main principles of efficient memorizing. Or what are the most economical methods of memorizing? How can a teacher make their use effective in learning of the children?
- Motivation: We learn only such things which concern us because we have interest in those things only. Some facts concern us more than the others. Such facts are learnt more easily and effectively. Many persons listen to a radio broadcast every person hears all the news but he learns only such news which affect him in some way or the other. From this example we conclude that we should make the lessons interesting for the children for deeper impressions on their minds. Only such things should be presented to them for memorization which concern them or for which they have been motivated. Basic education lays a great stress on this point. All knowledge is presented to the child through his own environment—physical, natural or social.
- Understanding in learning: The children must understand what they learn. Experiments show that it is much easier to learn intelligible material than meaningless one. Moreover, the learning of intelligible material is more lasting and more effective also. According to Early Childhood Courses, basic education makes the knowledge meaningful and purposeful for the children as everything is taught through some craft on the life experience of the child.
- Attention during learning: No learning is possible without concentrated attention. It is a very difficult but the most significant problem in the class-room. But attention cannot be forced on children as we cannot force a horse to drink water although we may drag it to a tank. In fact attention news which affect him in some way or the other.