Concept of Administration, management and governance
Concept of Administration
- According to the American school of thought — Administration is broader than Management. Administration is policy making, thinking and top level activity, while Management is at the implementing level-executive, acting and a lower level function.
- According to the British school of thought it is the reverse.
- According to Ducker-not to divorce planning from doing
- According to Koontz, Newman the two terms are synonymous there is no distinction between the two.
- According to Davis-Top Management is Administrative management and Lower Management is Operative Management.
Concept of Management by Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)
The term Management can be used as a Noun, Process an academic discipline. As a Noun: Individuals, Men, Trustees of a Managing Body who exercise leadership.
As a process: Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling.
As an Academic Discipline: Body of knowledge of concepts, theories, laws and applications in practice. Definitions according to different schools of thought.
1) Decision making school: Process of decision making and control over staff and students to achieve predetermined goals.
2) Functional School of thought: It is a process of planning, organizing, staffing, actuating and controlling over actions of humans to achieve pre determined goals.
3) Human Re people: Accomplishment of results through efforts of other people.
According to Montessori Training, Management is the art of getting things done through other people in formally organized groups.”
Management thus is getting work done:
- With the help of other people.
- Within the given budget.
- Within the given deadline.
- To accomplish individual and institutional goals.
- With least negative consequences.
Management is derived from the word ‘maneggiare’ which means to handle specially a horse which is derived from the Latin word ‘menus’ which me to hands. The word was finally coined from the French word mismanagement in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Governance & Maintenance
“Governance” is the strategic task of setting the organisation’s goals, direction, limitations and accountability frameworks.
“Management” is the allocation of resources & overseeing the day to day operations of the organizations.
Governance determines the “what?” – What the organization does and what it should become in the future.
Management determines the “How” – how the organisation will reach those goals and aspirations.
- Thus it is difficult to demarcate clear distinction in the terms, there is a distinction in terms of the levels at which they operate.
- It will not be wrong to say that Governance is at the top most level. The board of directors of an organization.
- The next level is the administration – the HOD’S, co-ordinators
- Management would be the personnel implementing the plans and policies on a day to day basis.
- Organizational climate is the sum total of a dynamic interaction among the psychological, academic and physical dimensions of organizational environment.
- Thus management culture is a system of shared meanings held by members. This organizational culture precedes the notion of organizational climate.
- Management climate is the summary perception which people have about an organization.