Several theories of administration have been developed, Educators of Teacher Training has reported eight of them, four general and four educational. These are summarised below:
Barnard shows a deep insight into the nature of administration. Space forbids a detailed study of his theory, so we should be content with its more salient features.
(1) Co-operation is a synthesis of three basic factors-physical, biological and social.
(2) Finance, building, equipment, etc., constitute the physical environment.
(3) All complex organisations are made up of unit organisation.
(4) The understanding of the three factors-physical, biological and social is necessary for the study of normal organisations.
(5) Society is made up of complex organisations.
(6) Informal organisations are found within all formal organisations. The formal are essential for: maintaining order and consistency and the informal (personnel relationship) for vitality. They are mutually dependent and both are necessary for cooperation.
(7) Disturbance in cooperation results from false ideologies, prejudices, interests, etc., of the leader of formal organisations.
(8) These false ideologies cause four types or errors over-simplification of organisation life, disregard for the necessity for informal organisation, wrong emphasis on subjective rather than objective aspects of authority and confusion of morality with responsibility.
(9) Through decision are selected appropriate physical, biological, personal and social factors of the situation for specific combination for action.
(10) Wrong decisions are made due to wrong perception of the above factors of the environment and they limit the scope and success of cooperation.
(11) Good administrators and executives take into account in the specific situations not only the physical, personal and social factors but also the utilities related to each of them and the utilities attached to them by the organisation.
(12) An increasing degree of cooperation implies an increasing degree of complexity of morality and a high degree of moral complexity cannot be attained without high technological efficiency.
(13) Cooperation depends upon leadership, which is another name for high personal capacity for technological attainment and moral complexity.
(14) Dynamic expression of leadership is moral creativeness which depends upon technological proficiency and development of techniques in relation to it.
(15) Social integration depends upon development of leadership in the preparation of leaders mistakes have been committed. In the past morality was more emphasised than technological capacity. At present, greater emphasis is laid on development of technological proficiency than on morality. In both cases the result is the same-imbalance and disequilibrium. Both are equally important and necessary for good administration.
Typical of this approach is the study made by the Early Childhood Program. This study is based on the competency concept and expounded in Better Teaching in School Administration published by George Peabody College, Nashville in 1955. The authors believe that competency in administration results when an “individual exhibits behaviour that enables him to perform a particular “administrative task in the most desirable manner. Thus, the “competency concept” emphasises values as the basis and deals with “what ought to be”, or an “ethical or normative” standard of human behaviour.