Parameters of a system
Let us take the example of designing a one year B.Ed. programme by applying the Systems Approach to it.
- A) Formulation of objectives of the B.Ed programme keeping with the goals of NPE in mind.
- B) Pre assessment of entry behaviour assessing initial performance by suitable tests of the students who wish to pursue the B.Ed course. Aptitude and attitude tests may also be carried out and the students may be selected on the basis of their performance on these tests.
- d) Next a syllabus is designed.
- e) Designing a curriculum.
- f) Providing the human resources- teaching and non-teaching faculty.
- g) Deciding the learning methodologies; to impart the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes for a teacher training programme e.g. lectures, micro teaching, seminars, educational visits, innovative methods of teaching, lectures by experts etc.
- h) Providing the necessary physical infrastructure in the form of a building, classrooms, and other special rooms and building a network of practice teaching schools. Constraints of time, cost, staff and other limitations maybe considered at this stage.
- a) Design and develop a system to achieve objectives by involving the following
- i) Selecting suitable teaching methods/strategies
Ii) Selecting appropriate media/material/instructional aids
Iii) Selection of appropriate evaluation procedures.
- W) Formulating a scheme of comprehensive program/time table for the working of system in relation to its parameters and stipulated objectives.
- b) Systems operation/implementation
This phase is concerned with actual operation of implementation of the system. The time table is set the pupils, the teachers, the material resources, time, roles and functions of the human resources are co-ordinate, integrated, and synthesized to achieve the institutional objectives.
- c) Evaluation of objectives/outcomes Student attainment in terms of performance in the exams, practice teaching other tests is evaluated in terms of achieving objectives. The achievements also provide a feedback for whether the programme has been effective or require improvement.
The students have thus attained qualifications to join the world of work. They are now trained teachers with the necessary knowledge and skills to be employed in schools.
Effectiveness and proficiency of the trained teachers at the schools they join will provide a feedback to the institutions to improve effectiveness in terms of specified objectives. Thus the feedback is provided from the external environment the employing schools as well as the internal environment the students and the teachers about the effectiveness of the programme.
Certain changes in the society will prompt changes in the syllabus, curriculum or skills of the learner.
The process can be re-structured, re-organized and functions can be re-planned for better results.
Scope of Systems Approach
1) Educational planning, policy making, on-formal education, Distance Educations
2) Classroom instruction, solving classroom management instructions.
3) Improving teacher professional competence
4) Preparing school time-table, school budget, delegating power, selecting teaching utilization of equipment of school
5) Devising theories of learning, developing teaching models, setting lip resource centres.
Lack of universality by Kindergarten Teacher Training
The approach may be suitable for large and complex organizations only. Moreover it has nothing new to offer and the theory is incomplete in itself.
While looking at the whole (holistic view), the individual needs are neglected. An individual feels it is not humorous as individual needs are not given due importance.