- Using thought provoking questions when teaching. Always ask for reasons to support the answer.
- Critical thinking can be encouraged through experiments. Ask pupils to perform experiments and search for answers to what they observe
- Assignments should involve critical thinking. Open book assignments, project work help to think critically. In languages critical appreciation of poems, book reviews are ways to encourage critical thinking.
- Co curricular activities as discussions and debates promote critical thinking
- Examinations should not be based on rote learning. Ask higher order questions based on analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In languages essays, giving view and counterview of a given statement help to think critically E.g. Science is it a curse or a boon?
- Encourage a critical attitude in children. Nothing should be accepted without adequate reasoning.
- Encourage students to see an event from others’ point of view. Build open minded attitude in students.
- Encourage students to search for extra inputs, read and review articles. Students must be trained to do reference work.
Teacher Training has stated below the Educational implications or role of a teacher in developing reflective thinking:
- Provide enough time for students to reflect when responding to inquiries. Ask higher order questions that demand reflective thinking Eg How can the problem of soil erosion be solved in a hilly area? How can we minimize the use of plastics?
- Provide emotionally supportive environments in the classroom encouraging revaluation of conclusions.
- Prompt reviews of the learning situation, what is known, what is not yet known, and what has been learned. Students must develop the habit of connecting what they knew with what they have now learned.
- Prompt students’ reflection by asking questions that seek reasons and evidence. No guessing of answers must be encouraged.
- Use exploratory methods as problem solving, project work, experimentation, laboratory method to learn.
- Concept mapping helps to think critically and organize one’s understanding of the subject.
- Provide reflective journal to write down students’ positions, give reasons to support what they think, show awareness of opposing positions and the weaknesses of their own positions.
Memory is that activity of mind that gives a person a hold over his previous experiences which have left an impression on his mind. Without memory, life would be very difficult. Memory plays an important role in the learning process and is a vital factor determining success in examinations. According to early childhood online courses, Memory is the capacity to store experiences and bring them to the field of consciousness later. Memory includes registration of an event, recall and recognition.
It also involves considering how and why you think the way you do. The examination of your beliefs, values, attitudes and assumptions forms the foundation of your understanding. It helps you therefore to recognise and clarify the important connections between what you already know and what you are learning. It is a way of helping you to become an active, aware and critical learner. It links information we possess into network helping to remember the matter better.