Various Types of Guidance
Educational Guidance: Educational guidance is that specific area of guidance help which takes care of students’ problems which pertain to their educational progres
s and experiences. Students of any school maybe classified into two groups : (a) those who are having problems with their learning and achievement such as not progressing satisfactorily, soc finding certain subjects difficult, unable to decide which courses they should opt for, not res liking a subject or even the school, and so on, (b) those who do not have any problem at a particular point of time, but in order to enable them to utilize their potentialities fully they need guidance; also they need to be saved from developing some problem in future through preventive guidance. Both these groups of students meaning, thereby, all students need educational guidance.
Vocational Guidance: Vocational guidance is a process for helping individuals to choose an occupation, prepare for it, enter it and develop in it. Vocational guidance is guidance given to a person chiefly about vocational problems. It had its beginning in Person’s Vocational Bureau which was established by him in 1908 at Boston in America. According to Early Childhood Care Education, he was the one who used the term ‘guidance’ for the first time. He used this term for aiding young people in choosing their vocations and preparing for them. But, at that time, i.e. in the earlier stages of the vocational guidance it was confined only to giving of occupational information. During the third and the fourth decades of the present century, however, state governments in America gave recognition to guidance and implemented its programmes.
Personal and Social Guidance: Personal and social guidance is the process of helping an individual to know how to behave with consideration towards other people. Primarily, personal and social guidance helps the individual to understand himself, know how to get on with others, learn manners and etiquette pursue leisure time activities, practise social skills, develop family and family relationships, and understand social roles and responsibilities.
Individual Guidance: Individual guidance or counselling is as described by Gilbert (1 95 1) a personal and dynamic relationship between two people who approach a mutually defined problem with mutual consideration of each other to the end that the younger or less mature or more troubled of the two is aided to a self-determined resolution of his problems. It is an individual matter as there is only one person who is to be aided.
Group Guidance: Group guidance means that procedure of guidance in which it is a group of more than one individual which is helped to solve problems of the group members. In the earlier stages of guidance and counselling individual guidance was considered more important, rather only kind of guidance. So it was largely remedial in nature. But; later on, when it was widely accepted that guidance was a necessity for the development of both kinds of individuals, normal as well as problem ones, Developmental concept of guidance stressed that guidance was necessary for all. Then group guidance emerged to be more important, because with the huge population of the schools individual guidance was not feasible. It was uneconomical and impossible to help such a large number of pupils individually.