The problem of having economy in memorizing something has persuaded many psychologists to devise various methods of memorization. All these methods aim to point out the way of utilizing the available time in the most advantageous manner. Early Childhood Education Course describes below some of the methods:
Recitation method: In this method the learner first reads the matter once or twice and then tries to recite and recall that without looking at those materials. In this way, the recitation method provides continuous self-appraisal. Learner evaluates himself from time to time and notes the points which he has been unable to recall. To these points due attention can be paid and thus he is saved of unnecessarily repeating the already memorized material. Moreover the recitation method is more stimulating the continued re-reading of the same material. It helps in detecting errors earlier and avoids them by close attention.
Whole and Part methods: According to Teachers Training Program there are two methods of memorizing a poem – one is to read the poem again and again from the beginning till the end a whole and the other is divided into parts and each part is memorized separately. Both of these methods have advantages as well as disadvantages. Which of the two would prove suitable and economical depends upon the prevailing conditions and the nature of the thing to be memorized. The whole method is found better than the part method in case of memorizing a thing requiring less time, say a short poem; while the part method prove more advantageous if the poem is longer one. In some cases a combination of these two methods has been found most suitable. In this combined method, the learner starts initially by the whole method and tries to locate the areas of difficulty. These difficult portions are attended through part method. After that the subject once again come to the whole method and becomes able to remember it successfully.
Spaced and unspaced methods (Methods of Distributed and Massed practice): In the spaced or distributed practice method of memorization, the subject is not required to memorize the assigned material in one continuous sifting. After memorizing for some time some rest is provided and in this way the principle of ‘work and rest’ is followed in this method. For example if one has to memorize a piece of poetry by this method, then in the beginning he will be advised to go on repeating it. After some time he will be given some rest. Again he will memorize it and take rest. In this way with repeated intervals of work and rest he will be able to have mastery over the assigned piece. On the other hand, in unspaced or massed practice method of memorization the subject memorize the assigned material at one sitting without any interval or rest. This helps in removing the monotony caused by long periods of study. Attention also does not flag and fatigue is avoided. The subject gets a fresh start after a period of rest and thus his interest can be maintained in the task. This of these methods is the best and appropriate is a difficult question to be answered.