Role of State Education Departments in Institutional Planning

The State Education Departments should encourage initiative, creativity, freedom and experimentation on the part of institutions and teachers. It should be their responsibility to identify good schools and to give them greater support and large freedom to enable them to become better, while at  same time, providing the necessary guidance and direction to the weaker Read more about Role of State Education Departments in Institutional Planning[…]

National Council of Educational Research & Training

National Council of Educational Research & Training (NCERT) NCERT was established as an autonomous body by the Government of India. The Union Minister for HRD is the is the chairman and all the Ministers of Education in the States and Union Territories are members, UGC chairman and four nominated vice-chancellors of the universities and nominees Read more about National Council of Educational Research & Training[…]

Institutional Differences in Organizational Climate

This has been established beyond doubt that institutions differ from one another with respect to their organizational climates. Just as differences are found among individuals with respect to personality qualities differences are found to exist among organisations and institutions with respect to their climates. Studies of organizations and institutions have clearly demonstrated this fact. Hence, Read more about Institutional Differences in Organizational Climate[…]

Concept of Systems Approach and Educational Management

Concept of Systems Approach (SA) SA enables us to design complex systems by the use of resources in form of men, money, machine and materials so that the total system may be designed, fitted together, checked and operated to achieve the goal in the most efficient way. SA provides a framework for planning, decision-making, controlling Read more about Concept of Systems Approach and Educational Management[…]

 Characteristics of a democratic Organizational Climate

Norris Haynes “Organizational Climate is the sum total of a dynamic interaction among the psycho social, academic and physical dimensions of the school environment.” 1) Principle of Democratic Leadership – if the principal harness the power and talent of teachers and students to the maximum the community also takes an interest in the institution. 2) Read more about  Characteristics of a democratic Organizational Climate[…]

The Scope of Institutional Planning

The Scope of Institutional Planning Early Childhood Education Program has spilt out the scope of institutional planning, as follows: (1) Improving the School Plant (a) Provision of more amenities to pupils—drinking water, sanitary facilities, transport, mid-day meals, uniforms, medical aid, book banks, etc. (b) More and better equipment in the schools-library, reading rooms, laboratory, teaching Read more about The Scope of Institutional Planning[…]

Self Material Learning

The self-learning materials are designed based on learning theories, to a large extent on the basis of an eclectic approach combining behaviouristic, cognitive, and constructivist learning theories. Without going into these theories, we list five characteristics of self-learning materials: self-explanatory, self-contained, self-directed, self-motivating, and self-evaluating. Self-Learning Materials by Early Childhood Education Course Self-Explanatory: The self-learning Read more about Self Material Learning[…]

Need for Blending Learning

The fast changing technologies have put some special demands on the education sector. The existing education system is successfully meeting the slowly changing need of the society of the earlier times. The education needs emanating from fast changing technologies could not be responded by the conventional educational system. The huge gap in, manpower requirements has Read more about Need for Blending Learning[…]

Individualized Education Programme (IEP)

Individualized Education Programme refers to a carefully designed systematically implemented & objectively evaluated programme to meet the special education needs of an individual child. Individualized Education Programme is a complex process. It is not the responsibility of any single person it is a group work. The success of inclusion depends upon a number of persons Read more about Individualized Education Programme (IEP)[…]


Meaning: The school discipline should be positive and constructive rather than negative and restrictive. The Old Conception of Discipline by Distance Learning Teacher Training The old conception of discipline was concerned with maintaining perfect order of military type. It consisted of oppression and repression all around in everything a pupil did. There was a rigid Read more about Discipline[…]