Concept of mental health – fostering mental health at home and school

In his book Mental Hygiene in Public Health. P.V. Lewan defines mentally healthy individual is one who is himself satisfied, lives peacefully with his neighbours, makes healthy citizenship role. “Mental health is the adjustment of human beings to the world and to each other with a maximum of effectiveness and happiness. It is the ability Read more about Concept of mental health – fostering mental health at home and school[…]


According to Montessori Training, the feelings of the children are taken into consideration in organising work, study groups and play groups among the children of the class. One simple sociometric method of estimating the child’s likes and dislikes and feelings about his classmates is illustrated here. Let us take a hypothetical cause of a class Read more about A SOCIOGRAM[…]

Transactional Analysis

Transactional analysis refers to a method of analysing and understanding interpersonal behaviour. When people interact, there is social transaction in which one person responds to another. The study of these transactions between people is called Transactional Analysis. Structure of personality given by Montessori Course Online: (a) Depending on the understanding of the ego states individuals Read more about Transactional Analysis[…]

Directive Approach to Counselling

As the name itself this approach envisages a more active role for the counsellor. The counsellor employs varying degrees of direction to help the counselee to reach sound solutions. Also through his specialised knowledge and experience inscientific diagnosis and interpretation of data, counselees are helped to reach earlier solutions for their problems. According to early Read more about Directive Approach to Counselling[…]

Counselling Theories

Adlerian Theory: One theory the counsellor plans to use in her practice is Adlerian theory, developed by Alfred Adler. Adler developed the first holistic approach to therapy. “According to Early Childhood Care & Education, when we feel encouraged, we feel capable and appreciated and will generally act in a connected and cooperative way. When we Read more about Counselling Theories[…]

Anecdotal Record

An anecdotal record is the result of observation the use behaviour of the student in a particular situation. It understands of student because the teacher may forget down to observe? What to observe? A pre-Performa is supplied to each teacher to note down student observation. It contains date, place, incident and remarks on the Performa Read more about Anecdotal Record[…]

Time-Table in Single or Double Teacher School

The construction of time-table for a single or double teacher school presents special difficulties. In that case one teacher has to teach two, three or even four classes at the same time-and in the same room. The difficulties increase in proportion to the number of classes a teacher has to engage at a time. But Read more about Time-Table in Single or Double Teacher School[…]

Steps or Process of learning

  Motivation: All learning is a response to some sort of stimulus. An individual experiences, drive to satisfy a need and hence moves in a particular direction. Learning will depend upon the strength of the motives. An example given by Nursery Teacher Training: A person wants to lean a new language as it will improve Read more about Steps or Process of learning[…]

Reflective thinking

Dewey’s definition of reflective thinking: “Active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusion to which it tends”. Learners are aware of and control their learning by actively participating in reflective thinking – assessing what they know, what Read more about Reflective thinking[…]

Parameters of a system

Let us take the example of designing a one year B.Ed. programme by applying the Systems Approach to it. I) INPUT A) Formulation of objectives of the B.Ed programme keeping with the goals of NPE in mind. B) Pre assessment of entry behaviour assessing initial performance by suitable tests of the students who wish to Read more about Parameters of a system[…]