Discussion Method

According to the modern educational thought a child is not considered as a passive listener but the emphasis is given to make him active in the process of learning.

A knowledge which is gained by doing is always permanent. Different teaching methods are used to make the child active. Discussion method is also one of them. It is a method which works in a group environment with adequate independence. Some definitions are given below to make its meaning clearer.

“Discussion is an educational group activity in which teacher and the students talk Over some problem or topic” – James M. Lee

“Discussion means thoughtful consideration of the relationships involved in the topic I under study’ –Thomas M. Risk

According to teacher training center, the Discussion may be formal and informal. In formal discussion every activity is performed in a systematic manner, definite rules and norms are observed in it. Students themselves select the leader, secretary and other officials for conducting such discussion. In informal discussion informal atmosphere is essential. Respect should be given to each child’s contribution and group decisions should be respected. Shy children should be encouraged. The teacher’s role in this discussion is of crucial importance.

Importance of Discussion Method – Discussion is one of the most valuable techniques used in democratic education. Its use is essential to effective clarification of goals, planning and evaluation Discussion provides a practical opportunity to develop a group feeling. Attention is given to problems, questions and interests which arise in the daily programmer. Ideas are shared, points of view are expressed, leaders are selected, responsibilities are delegated end respect is shown for the right of others to express themselves.

Form of Discussion Method – A leader, participants, problem or question and materials are required or discussion method. Students themselves or the teacher can present problem for the discussion. After the presentation of problem the teacher can throw light on the aims and the sources of the study materials. Thus they will prepare themselves for presenting their own thoughts. The discussion will begin after collecting materials, data and information related to the different group-member. The discussion will be conducted and carried on through elected leader or teacher. The teacher’s job will be to remove the doubts of students. He will work as an ordinary member. The elected leader will also present his views after the views expressed by the students; this will be the end of the discussion. The entire proceedings will be noted down by the student secretary.



  1. It is useful both for the juniors and seniors.
  2. It helps in developing the feeling of co-operation and tolerance among the students.
  3. It helps clarifying and sharpening the issues.
  4. It helps the teacher in discovering students who have a potential for becoming genuine leaders.
  5. It helps students in making decisions independently.
  6. It helps pupils in summarizing the work.
  7. It helps students in developing the habit of self study.


  1. It kills student’s time, dragging them into mere discussion.
  2. In discussion some students remain active and they don’t give opportunities to other shy students to participate.
  3. Shy and dull students do not derive much benefit through it.
  4. Its proper conduction is possible in the higher classes.

Dimensions of National Integration

National Integration and emotional integration are synonymous. Emotional integration is an essential component of National Integration

Cultural Integration- It means to have qualities of tolerance and co-operation, accommodativeness unselfishness, social sensitivity and responsiveness

Economic Integration- It lays stress on general improvement in the standard of living of the people.

Linguistic Integration- It implies living together in harmony, understanding of different languages and smooth communication.

Social Integration- This dimension leads to Selection and harmonizing of the good features of the different groups.

Essential Elements of National Integration by Teachers Training

  • Personal integration,
  • National unity
  • Social cohesion
  • Emotional integration.

Need for National Integration

According to Kanungo, “Every country at every time needs national integration but India needs it the most.”

According to Dr. Manmohan Singh “India is united in seeking new opportunities for growth and not divided by disparities; India is caring and inclusive”.

India’s passing through a critical period these days. The integrity of India is in danger. Therefore Indians will have to act carefully. In India national integration is needed due to following reasons:

  • To meet the threat of Foreign Aggression Na
  • Internal threats
  • To save the country from Extremism
  • To bring about National Unity
  • For the development of National Character
  • For Success of Democracy
  • For Diversity
  • For Peace
  • For Welfare of the country

Promotion of National Integration

Dr. S. Radhakrishnan “National integration cannot be built by brick and mortar; it cannot be built by chisel or hammer. It has to grow silently in the minds and hearts of men. The only process is the process of education.”

Education trains and transforms the young. The need to ‘catch young’, is imperative. National system of education can promote national integration. At present, the pattern of education varies from state to state. Therefore, Early Childhood Care & Education system has defined 10 core elements that are common in all the states.

  • Plea for learning different languages
  • Re-orienting Instructions in Social Sciences
  • The importance of Art, Literature and Music
  • Religion and Moral Education
  • Newspaper and Books.
  • Importance of Co-curricular activities
  • Face to face contacts – co curricular activities

Face to face contacts through out of school activities can rapidly break the walls of narrow provincialism. Face to face contacts may be developed through the following activities: Educational tours, cultural exchanges, teachers and students exchange programmes.

  • Other co curricular activities
    • Celebrating national, cultural and religious festivals, community living programmes
    • Reverence for the national flag, reverence for the national anthem, singing patriotic songs
    • Celebration of specific days
    • Organization of exhibitions
    • Organization of rallies
    • Street plays and drama
    • Dance- Folk dances in India
    • Music and songs in different languages

Role of a teacher

  • Organizing co-curricular activities
  • Celebrating national festivals f. Reciting National Anthem
  • Respect to National flag Respect to National symbols
  • Use of educational films and radio
  • Communicating values of National Integration and patriotism
  • Organization of seminars, drama and exhibitions



From birth onwards,   everybody in this world is faced with some problem or the other. There are needs and motives that are to be satisfied. For this purpose definite goal or aims are set. In an attempt for their realization one experiences obstacles and interferences. It creates problem for him and needs a serious attention and deliberates efforts on his part so that the obstacle or interference in the attainment of the objectives may be overcome. For this purpose one has to set one to think and reason and proceed systematically by following the scientific steps.

The above discussed productive works as a whole is named as problem-solving. It has been found very helpful in the progress of an individual as well of the society. The meanings and nature of this term can makeclearer through the following definitions: –

1.Early Childhood Care and Education: “Problem-solving behaviour occurs in novel or difficult situations in which a solution is not obtainable by the habitual methods of applying concepts and principles derived from past experience I very similar situation.’

  1. Skinner “Problem solving is a process of overcoming difficulties that appear to interfere with the attainment of goal. It is a procedure of making adjustments in spite of interferences.’

In this way problem solving can be understood as a deliberated ad on the part of an individual to overcome the interference or obstacle in the path of the attainment of his goal or objectives which ultimately results in the satisfaction of his needs or motives.


There are various methods of solving problems, which are adopted by an individual depending upon the level of the difficulty of his problem as well as his own ability and experience to deal with it. Usually simple problems are salved through the fixed pattern of our behaviour that may be instinctive or habitual. For the difficult problems trial and error or insightfully approach is adopted. According to Montessori Training there is one more method which is exclusively employed by the human beings in solving their problems. It is known as scientific method of problem solving. It follows the following important steps:-

  1. Awareness of the problem or realization of the felt difficulty: It is the realization of his difficulty that makes the child conscious of a problem. Therefore should get specific training for problem consciousness.
  2. Understanding the problem: For thorough understanding, the problem should be carefully analysed, stated and defined in clear words. What it means and what it requires for its solution should be known dearly.
  3. Collecting relevant information / data: Now the information related to the problem is collected through all possible sources and the individual concerned is required to widen the span of his knowledge relevant to the problem.
  4. 4. Formulation of hypotheses or possible solutions: One   tries to think of   the various possibilities for the solution of one’s problem in the light of the collected information and own experiences. The intelligence and his other cognitive abilities also help in the formulation of appropriate hypotheses.


Democratic School Management and Administration

The following ladder explains how our way of life, objectives of education, contents and educational-management and supervision derive their strength from our Constitution which serves as beacon light in our endeavours:

  • Our constitution way of life
  • Objectives of education
  • Contents of education
  • Objectives of educational management and administration
  • Objectives of school management

Objectives of Educational Administration and Management in India by Teacher Education Training

The foremost objective of educational administration is the fulfilment of the educational goals laid down. While describing the educational needs of democratic India, the Secondary Education Commission states, “India has recently achieved its political freedom and has after careful consideration decided to transform itself into a secular democratic republic. Thus means the educational system must make its contribution to the development of habits, attitudes and qualities of character which will enable its citizens to bear worthily the responsibilities of democratic citizenship and to counteract all those fissiparous tendencies which hinder the emergence of a broad, natural and secular outlook.”

The Education Commission (1964-66) also observed, “In this context special emphasis has to be laid on the development of values such as temper of mind, tolerance, respect for the culture of other national groups, etc. which will enable to adopt democracy not only as a form of government. But also as a way of life.”

The present day educational institutions must, therefore, be managed and administered on democratic principles. If this point is lost sight of then the very purpose of administration goes into oblivion. Democratic Administration and Monarchical Administration Prof. Humayun Kabir writes, “If our democratic way of life to survive and prove effective it is essential that our children grow up using and understanding its techniques. If our children are during their school lives, in the position of subjects to an autocratic rule, no matter how benevolent, they are not learning to fill their place adequately in a democracy.’ According to Principle R. R. Kumria, the democratic administration differs from monarchical administration is in four respects. If our children are during their school lives, in the position of subjects to an autocratic rule, no matter how benevolent, they are not learning to fill their place adequately in a democracy.”

According to Early Childhood Care & Education, the democratic administration differs from monarchical administration is in four respects. The first is that in a monarchical /administration, the will of one man reigns supreme while in a democratic administration, the will of the group counts. Secondly, in a monarchical administration, there are social grades of high and low and in a democratic administration, all members are equal and there are no such social grades. Thirdly, in a monarchical administration emphasis is on personalities, while in a democratic administration rules and codes govern and not the whims of personalities. And fourthly, there are special privileges for the administrators in a monarchical administration whereas they are no special privileges for anybody in democratic administration.

In a democracy all institutions, social, economic political, educational and others should be organised from the democratic stand point. The school is no longer regarded to be devoted to and engaged in the service of the basic democratic principles and goals recognising at the same time its service to the individual and to the progressive improvement of society.

Counselling – Its Definition and Elements

Counselling is the most important part of the guidance programme. It is an art by which the knowledge of the hidden desires of the individual is achieved. Thus counselling is basically a fore relationship between the counsellor and the counselee. Counsellor is able to know the innate desire of an individual. Counselling provides a great learning situation for interviewer as well as the interviewee. In fact, counselling is the soul of the whole educational and vocational guidance programme. The services that proceed are occupational information service, Self-inventory service, Personnel data collecting service etc. It is followed by the vocational preparation, placement service, the follow-up service and the research service.

Elements of the Counselling

Montessori Courses is of the opinion that counselling has three elements:

  1. It involves two persons—Counselee and the Counsellor.
  2. The objective of the counselling is to assist the counselee to solve his problems independently.
  3. Counselling is a professional task and must be performed by trained personnel.

Early Childhood Care and Education has given five elements of the counselling as under:

  1. Establishment of a relationship of mutual respect between the two individuals involved in the Counselling process. This is what is known as “Rapport” in psychological literature.
  2. The Counsellor must be able to communicate what he wants to tell the Counselee and vice versa. The purpose is to help the counselee gain in-sight into the problem.
  3. The third element Concerns the Counsellor himself his qualifications, experience and personality.
  4. The four element concerns directly the Counselee. He should express change in feeling as Counselling proceeds and progress through various stages.
  5. The last and the fifth element relate to Counselling interview. The interview used in Counselling should be structured. The Counsellor should think ahead and plan ahead as to what questions he would ask from the Counselee and how he could lead him to a desired goal.”

Counselling and Guidance—there is difference between counselling and guidance. Counselling is a part of guidance, not all of it. In fact, this is the final phase of guidance activities. The score of guidance is wide, while the counselling has a limited field. Guidance covers a number of fields such as collecting the information about the pupil, educational courses and vocations, administering mental, scholastic and personality tests, maintaining cumulative record and suggesting suitable courses and vocations. The object of counselling is only to suggest courses, vocations and guidance in the solution or personal problem.

Counselling and teaching—there is a difference between teaching also. Teaching is done in groups, while the counselling is face to face relationship. In teaching mostly the lecture method is used, while a counsellor has to use varied techniques. The teacher is fully conversant with the subject matter. Teaching centres around academic and intellectual areas. No doubt, there is difference between teaching and counselling but in the broader sense it can be said that counselling is better than teaching. The main aim of the good teaching as well as counselling is to help the students to achieve maximum growth.

Corporal Punishment

Violent antagonistic views have been expressed regard this type of punishment in the old type of educational system, it occupied a very important place and was considered to be an indispensable weapon in the hands of a teacher to reform the child. ‘Spare the rod and spoil the child’ was their favourite slogan. They believed that he who has not been chastened is not educated.

“I find little weight in the arguments of those who support the practice of corporal punishment. For minor offences it is too harsh; for serious moral delinquency, it is irrelevant and may be positively evil, as a stimulus to learning it has been proved to be In the long run a deterrent, rather than an .encouragement. When inflicted in public it may excite the wrong emotion–morbid excitement, repulsion, anger, fear, and pity or admiration for wrong-doers. It is an interrupting and disturbing rather than a binding influence in a community and plays no useful part either in promoting lasting good social relationships or sound learning,” wrote E.B. Castle.

As already pointed out, most of the modern educationists consider it to be outdated and outmoded and call it as a barbaric act. They condemn it outright. “Severity and lack of sense can permanently destroy a man’s ability to fight the battle of life, people emerge from such an upbringing as moral cripples” writes Alters.

Another writer, Russell doubts very much whether punishment need ever be severe. Physical punishment he believed to be never right. “In mild forms it does little harm, though no good; in severe forms, I am convinced that it generates cruelty and brutality,” he writes.

Similarly B. Hamley states, “Whatever may be our opinion of the need for corporal punishment, it will do us no harm to admit that its necessity is a sign of weakness in the school.” Hobbes is of the view, “The fool cannot be mended by flogging and he who flogs is the greatest fool.” H. G. Stead has dubbed this type of punishment as a lazy means of control.

Following are some of the chief objections to corporal punishment by Teacher Training Education :

  1. It is not in consonance with the creed of non-violence.
  2. It coarsens the child and the person who inflicts punishment.
  3. It is .a negation of co-operation.
  4. It has an appeal to the brutal instincts only.
  5. There is no proper standard of applying it.
  6. It is negative in effect.
  7. It sometimes gives rise to permanent injuries.
  8. It is degrading to both, i.e., the one who inflicts and the other who receives it.
  9. It is not corrective.
  10. It is based on the psychology of fear.
  11. It is confession of failure on the part of the teacher.
  12. It evokes resentment rather than repentance,

Conditions and Principles to be Observed While Inflicting Corporal Punishment

  1. It should be given only by the head of an institution.
  2. Neither party should be in anger.
  3. The instrument of punishment should not be very heavy.
  4. The child and the head both should be very clear about the cause of punishment.
  5. Its scope is limited to moral offences.


Considering underlying the Time-Table Marking

In making the time table there are several things which should be kept in mind. The preparation of the same depends much upon the ingenuity and skill of its maker. The framing of time table is a difficult and time absorbing job. According to Early Childhood Care and Education some of the important factors which should be kept in mind in framing the time table are given below:

Type of school: The time table depends upon the type of school. Work according to need, should be the chief principle of the maker of the time table. The needs of a boy’s school will be different from that of a girl’s school. The nature of activities in an urban school will not be the same as in a rural school. For running the double shifts, the duration of the school will be lesser. In the colleges having coeducation, numerous changes will be necessary to fulfil the needs of both the boys and the girls. So whether school is girl’s institution or the boy’s school, rural or urban, public or ordinary, will determine the activities of the school and the time table will be framed accordingly.

Incidence of Fatigue: The incidence of fatigue influences the construction of time table in many ways. Subjects which are more tiring and require more brain work should be put at a time when the students are fresh and capable of grasping easily. Each part of the morning is better than the corresponding part of the afternoon. The middle of the morning is a better time to work than the middle of the afternoon. The middle of afternoon is better than the end of the morning, with the middle of the morning will be better than the end of the afternoon. The mind is at its best in the morning. The freshness increases until it reaches the middle. The same is true for the recess. Mental freshness and alertness is not so just after the recess but as it is in second period after recess. So the best periods for the subjects of the bring nature are second and third in the morning, and the second period after the recess, next to them are fourth and the fifth periods, which fall Just before and just after the recess, respectively. The last period in the afternoon is the worst period. Mathematics, Indian Languages, English and Science are supposed to be the subjects of most fatiguing nature for the Indian students, and so, these should be kept in second, third and second period after recess. The principle fatigue is also true of the days of the week. Tuesday and Wednesday are supposed to be the best days, Monday is the holiday mood day and the end of the week i.e. Saturday, and is like the end of the day. All these realities should be borne in mind in framing the time table.

Time factor: According to Teacher Training Mumbai, it is one of the important factors which should be kept in mind while making the time table. The amount of time to be given to each subject depends upon the total amount of the time available in the school. The time duration changes from season. The lesser amount of time is given for lower classes than to the higher than to the higher classes.


Concept of Total Quality Management in Education

The Oxford dictionary defines the word ‘quality’ as ‘how good something is’ or ‘how well the standard of excellence’ is.

According to early childhood education training, education is a behavioural science. It deals with humans and is directed towards producing quality products. This means the products of education must bear the stamp of social, moral, philosophical, spiritual and psychological excellence. This is possible only whim the educative process itself is tampered with excellence and bears the quality of continuous improvement.

Synergistic Relationships: The terms synergism is derived from Greek sunergos which means ‘working together’. The principle of synergistic relationship emphasizes “the system of the work in which all are involved.” In other words, teamwork and collaboration are essentially. They very application of the first pillar of Total Quality Management to education emphasizes the synergistic relationship between the “suppliers” and “customers”. The concept of synergy suggests that performance and production is the result of pooling the talent and experience of individuals.

Viewed in this way, the teacher and the school are suppliers of effective learning tools, environments, and systems to the students, who are the school’s primary customer. The school is responsible for providing for the long-term educational welfare of students by teaching them how to learn and adopt high quality ways, how to access quality in their own work and in that of others, and how to invest in the life-long and life wide learning processes by maximising opportunities for growth in every aspect of daily life.

Continuous Improvement and Self Evaluation: The second pillar of Total Quality Management applied to education the total dedication to continuous improvement, personally and collectively. Within a Total Quality school setting, administrators work collaboratively with their Customers. It is in our best interest to encourage everyone’s potential by dedicating ourselves to the continual improvement of one’s own abilities and those of the people with whom we work and live. Total Quality is, essentially, a win-win strategy which works to everyone’s ultimate advantage. According to Deming, no human being should ever evaluate another human being. Therefore, Total Quality Management ensures self-evaluation as part of a continuous improvement process.

A System of Ongoing Process: The three pillar of Total Quality Management as applied in academics is the recognition of the organization as a system. Everything done within the organization must be seen as an ongoing process.  The primary implication of this principle is that individual students and teachers are less to blame for failure than the system in which they work. “Since systems are made up of processes, the improvements made in the quality of the processes largely determine the quality of the resulting product. In the new paradigm of learning, continuous improvement of learning processes based on learning outcomes replaces the outdated ‘teach and test’.”

Leadership: According to Teacher Training Programme the fourth Total Quality Management principle applied to education is that the success of Total Quality Management is the responsibility of top management tool teachers must establish environment in which students can best achieve their potential through continuous improvement that, results from teachers and students working together. The teacher must provide the leadership, framework, and tools necessary for continuous improvement in the learning process.



Concept of Systems Approach and Educational Management

Concept of Systems Approach (SA)

SA enables us to design complex systems by the use of resources in form of men, money, machine and materials so that the total system may be designed, fitted together, checked and operated to achieve the goal in the most efficient way.

SA provides a framework for planning, decision-making, controlling and problem `to combine’ or `to together’ solving. The word system is derived from the Greek word which means ‘to combine’ or ‘to bring together’.

A system is a set of inter related & inter dependent parts working towards a common purpose.

E.g. the human body is a system with all the organs, muscles, bones & conscious that like all its part.

System approach is a framework for decision making planning, controlling & most important problem-solving

Neil’s view “system approach to education is defined as a particular method of exploration to find effective ways of problem solving, designing & organizing learning situation in education”.


Keshon and Michean SA is one of the techniques which aim in finding the most efficient and economically intelligent method for solving the problems of education scientifically.’

Concept of Educational Management by Pre Primary Teachers Training

Education is an enterprise but the aim of school is not production of the stipulated amount of goods or products but producing good citizens.

Educational Management is sum total of processes through which appropriate human and material resources are made available and effective for accomplishing the purpose of an enterprise


Nature of Management (management is) along

1) Continuous process (POSDCORB)

2) A group activity, team work to achieve objectives.

3) Art and science. Managers are artistic scientists.

4) Result oriented and goal directed,.

5) Adopts professional approach

6) Touches all walks of life, covers all departments, activities, all levels of management, a universal process.

Management principles developed by Henri Fayol:

  1. Division of Work
  2. Authority: The concepts of the authority and responsibilities are closely related.
  3. Discipline: obey and respect the rules
  4. Unity of command: receives order from only one manager
  5. Unity of direction: The entire organisation is moving towards common objective in a common direction.
  6. Subordinate of individual interest to the general interest
  7. Remuneration: fair wage of their services.
  8. Centralization
  9. Scalar chain: manages in hierarehies upper level managers informed of their work
  10. Order: systematic arrangement of men, machine, material, etc.
  11. Equity: employees treated as equally as possible.
  12. Stability of tenure of personnel: retaining productive employees, high priority of management.
  13. Initiative: steps to encourage initiative.
  14. Espirit de corps: Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity, within the organisation.



Feedback by Early Childhood Education Course

Effectiveness and proficiency of the trained teachers at the schools they join will provide a feedback to the institutions to improve effectiveness in terms of specified objectives. Thus the feedback is provided from the external environment the employing schools as well as the internal environment the students and the teachers about the effectiveness of the programme.

Certain changes in the society will prompt changes in the syllabus, curriculum or skills of the learner.

The process can be re-structured, re-organized and functions can be re-planned for better results.


Concept of Administration, management and governance

Concept of Administration

  • According to the American school of thought — Administration is broader than Management. Administration is policy making, thinking and top level activity, while Management is at the implementing level-executive, acting and a lower level function.
  • According to the British school of thought it is the reverse.
  • According to Ducker-not to divorce planning from doing
  • According to Koontz, Newman the two terms are synonymous there is no distinction between the two.
  • According to Davis-Top Management is Administrative management and Lower Management is Operative Management.

Concept of Management by Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)

The term Management can be used as a Noun, Process an academic discipline. As a Noun: Individuals, Men, Trustees of a Managing Body who exercise leadership.

As a process: Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling.

As an Academic Discipline: Body of knowledge of concepts, theories, laws and applications in practice. Definitions according to different schools of thought.

1) Decision making school: Process of decision making and control over staff and students to achieve predetermined goals.

2) Functional School of thought: It is a process of planning, organizing, staffing, actuating and controlling over actions of humans to achieve pre determined goals.

3) Human Re people: Accomplishment of results through efforts of other people.



According to Montessori Training, Management is the art of getting things done through other people in formally organized groups.”

Management thus is getting work done:

  • With the help of other people.
  • Within the given budget.
  • Within the given deadline.
  • To accomplish individual and institutional goals.
  • With least negative consequences.

Management is derived from the word ‘maneggiare’ which means to handle specially a horse which is derived from the Latin word ‘menus’ which me to hands. The word was finally coined from the French word mismanagement in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Governance & Maintenance

“Governance” is the strategic task of setting the organisation’s goals, direction, limitations and accountability frameworks.

“Management” is the allocation of resources & overseeing the day to day operations of the organizations.

Governance determines the “what?” – What the organization does and what it should become in the future.

Management determines the “How” – how the organisation will reach those goals and aspirations.

  • Thus it is difficult to demarcate clear distinction in the terms, there is a distinction in terms of the levels at which they operate.
  • It will not be wrong to say that Governance is at the top most level. The board of directors of an organization.
  • The next level is the administration – the HOD’S, co-ordinators
  • Management would be the personnel implementing the plans and policies on a day to day basis.
  • Organizational climate is the sum total of a dynamic interaction among the psychological, academic and physical dimensions of organizational environment.
  • Thus management culture is a system of shared meanings held by members. This organizational culture precedes the notion of organizational climate.
  • Management climate is the summary perception which people have about an organization.